I'm a Swedish writer, artist, and historian of ideas, writing fiction and non-fiction books in both Swedish and English. I'm also an aikido instructor. Google Profile. More about me here.
THE GREEK PHILOSOPHERS
by Stefan Stenudd. Qi, prana, spirit, and other life forces around the world explained and compared. Click the image to see the book at Amazon.
The Taoism of Lao Tzu Explained. The great Chinese classic, translated and extensively commented by Stefan Stenudd. Click the image to see the book at Amazon.
Cosmos of the Ancients
The Greek Philosophers on Myth and Cosmology
naxagoras (500-428 BC) was a student of Anaximenes, and according to Diogenes Laertius: "the first who set mind above matter", quoting his - perchance only - book to begin: "All things were together; then came Mind and set them in order." Therefore, according to the same source, he was given the nickname Nous (mind).
While other things have a share of everything, Nous is infinite, self-governing, and has been mixed with nothing, but is alone unto itself.
Separated this way, it was able to rule the world, and to begin its process of differentiation and development, by means of a revolving movement, starting in a small area and expanding. By this, the world started breaking up in smaller parts, whereby the heavenly bodies were born, and warm separated from cold, bright from dark, dry from moist. In this revolving movement, some things were separated and others joined, and that is really all that takes place in the world:
The Greeks do not employ (the words) 'coming to be' and 'perishing' correctly, for nothing comes into being or is even destroyed; rather, from (pre-) existing things there is combining and breaking up. They would, therefore, be correct to call coming-to-be 'combining' and perishing 'breaking up'.
For heaven and earth, Anaxagoras saw their making as a mixing of qualities, giving each of the two its significance much in line with the Greek tradition, and certainly in many other traditions as well:
The dense and the moist and the cold and the dark came together here where the earth is now; the rare and the warm and the dry (and the bright) moved outward into the far-off limits of the aither.
On the microscopic perspective he stated that there is no thing which is the smallest, since there can always be something smaller and no matter how small a part is, it cannot be cut away to nothing.
Anaxagoras was tried in court, probably for declaring that the sun was a mass of red-hot metal, larger than Peloponnesus, and expelled from Athens, where he had lived for 30 years.
© Stefan Stenudd 2000
Cosmos of the Ancients - the Book