Henkawaza: all attacks and aikido techniques. Click the image to see the table enlarged.
Notes on henkawaza
- Henkawaza in the meaning of variations on techniques, should not be regulated as basics, but can still be required in grading.
- Below, the henkawaza intended is the shifting from one technique to another.
- The shift of technique should be done when the initial technique has become specific, ie. recognizable as a certain aikido technique (same as in kaeshiwaza).
- Ikkyo is a "general" entrance, so it is only included in henkawaza when followed by a technique that normally is done with a different entrance.
- The shift of technique should be done reasonably smooth.
- Henkawaza should be a motivated shift, such as when meeting resistance on the initial technique, when uke gets dispositioned for the initial technique, or at need in taninzugake, etc.
- Henkawaza should not be trained so that it impairs the basic techniques (for example by doing a sloppy initial technique to motivate the shift).
- Additional comments on henkawaza techniques are below.
- Aikido glossary here.
Comments on henkawaza
- IKKYO in henkawaza is not changed into other pinnings, but techniques that don't normally start like ikkyo. It should not be changed before uke's arm is lifted in an arch.
- NIKYO should not be changed before uke's hand is positioned for the nikyo wrist twist. Because of this position, several techniques are impractical.
- SANKYO should not be changed before uke's hand is positioned for the sankyo wrist twist. Because of this position, several techniques are impractical.
- YONKYO should not be changed before uke's arm is positioned for the yonkyo pressure. Because of tori's two-handed grip, most techniques are awkward and impractical to change to.
- GOKYO is not practical to change, since it doesn't really become gokyo before the end pinning.
- HIJIKIME OSAE can be changed, but it is odd and awkward because of tori's and uke's positions when hijikime osae is recognizable as such. Because of uke's position, only kaitennage makes good sense.
- KAITEN OSAE is possible but difficult to change to a few techniques, and very impractical to the rest, because of uke's position when the kaiten osae is recognizable.
- KOKYUHO can be changed into most techniques with ease. It should not be done before tori has moved into the throwing position.
- KOKYUNAGE can be changed to many techniques. It should not be done before tori has commenced the throw, and there it is quite practical to have as an option, if uke resists the throw.
- IRIMINAGE should not be changed before tori has entered the throwing position. It is easy to change into several other techniques, most of them quite practical if uke resists.
- SHIHONAGE should not be changed before uke's arm has been lifted. Most techniques can be used, although with differing difficulty.
- KOTEGAESHI should not be changed before tori prepares to turn uke's wrist. Because of tori's hand positions, several techniques become impractical.
- TENCHINAGE is difficult and impractical to change, since it is quite late in the technique that it becomes recognizable as tenchinage, where few options remain.
- KAITENNAGE is quite difficult and impractical to change, since it is quite late in the technique that it becomes recognizable as kaitennage, where few options remain.
- KOSHINAGE should not be changed before tori has assumed a throwing position, and maybe even tried the throw. Some techniques are quite easy, and very practical to have as options, if uke resists the throw.
- UDEKIMENAGE should not be changed before tori has positioned uke's arm for the throw. Several techniques are quite easy, but some impractical.
- JUJIGARAMI (also called JUJINAGE) is not practical to change, since it is too late in the technique that it is reognizable as jujigarami.
- USHIRO KIRIOTOSHI is easy to change at the moment it becomes recognizable, because the break of balance smoothly leads to other techniques. Other techniques, though, are quite impractical.
- AIKINAGE is not practical to change, because it becomes recognizable at the very moment of the throw.
- AIKI OTOSHI is not practical to change, because it becomes recognizable too late in the technique, where tori's options are few.
Lists of Aikido Techniques
- Tachiwaza - mae (standing, attacks from the front)
- Tachiwaza - ushiro (standing, attacks from the rear)
- Suwariwaza (tori and uke sitting)
- Hanmi handachiwaza (tori sitting, uke standing)
- Tantodori (defense against knife)
- Tachidori (defense against sword)
- Jodori (defense against staff)
- Kaeshiwaza (counter techniques)
- Henkawaza (changed techniques)
- Kogeki (attacks in aikido)
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